The Information on this site was compiled of data from many sources:


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders. 4th Edition.   Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press; 2000.

Avella J, Wilson JC, Lehrer M. Fatal cardiac arrhythmia after repeated exposure to 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE).  American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 2006; 27 (1): 58-60.

Bowen SE, Daniel J, Balster RL. Deaths associated with inhalant abuse in Virginia from 1987 to 1996. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 1999; 53: 239-245.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. High school youth risk behavior survey 2017.

Finch CK, Lobo BL. Acute inhalant-induced neurotoxicity with delayed recovery.  Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2005; 39: 169-172.

Gautschi OP, Cadosch D, Zellweger R. Postural tremor induced by paint sniffing. Neurology India. 2007; 55 (4): 393-395.

Howard MO, Bowen SE, Garland EL, Perron BE, Vaughn MG. Inhalant use and inhalant disorders in the  united states. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice. 2011; Jul; 6 (1): 18-31.

Karmaker GC, Roxburgh R. Rhabdomyolysis in a glue sniffer. The New Zealand Medical Journal. 2008; 121 (1271): 70-71.

Marsolek MR, White NC, Litovitz TL. Inhalant abuse: monitoring trends by using poison control data, 1993-2008. PEDIATRICS. 2010; 125 (5): 906-914.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Monitoring the future survey 2018.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. National survey of drug use and health 2017.

NSDUH Report: Recent Declines in Adolescent Inhalant Use. March 18, 2014.

SAMSHA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, 2011-1012.

Sharp CW, Rosenberg NL. Inhalants. In: Lowinson JH, Ruiz P, Millman RB, Langrod JG, editors. Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005.

Takaki A, et al. A 27-year-old man who died of acute liver failure probably due to trichloroethylene abuse. Journal of Gastroenterology. 2008; 43 (3): 239-242.

U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, School Enrollment, October 2017.